History of Judo柔道,:
Judo (柔道, jūdō, Japanese pronunciation: [dʑɯꜜːdoː], lit. “gentle way”) is generally categorized as a modern Japanese martial art, which has since evolved into an Olympic event. The sport was created in 1882 by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎) as a physical, mental, and moral pedagogy in Japan. With its origins coming from jujutsu, judo’s most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata, 形) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori, 乱取り). It was also referred to as Kanō Jiu-Jitsu until the introduction to the Olympic event. A judo practitioner is called a “judoka”, and the judo uniform is called “judogi”.
Contest (試合, shiai) is a vitally important aspect of judo. In 1899, Kano was asked to chair a committee of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai to draw up the first formal set of contest rules for jujutsu. These rules were intended to cover contests between different various traditional schools of jujutsu as well as practitioners of Kodokan judo. Contests were 15 minutes long and were judged on the basis of nage waza and katame waza, excluding atemi waza. Wins were by two ippons, awarded in every four-main different path of winning alternatives, by “Throwing”, where the opponent’s back strikes flat onto the mat with sufficient force, by “Pinning” them on their back for a “sufficient” amount of time, or by Submission, which could be achieved via “Shime-waza” or “Kansetsu-waza”, in which the opponent was forced to give himself or herself up or summon a referee’s or corner judges stoppage. Finger, toe, and ankle locks were prohibited. In 1900, these rules were adopted by the Kodokan with amendments made to prohibit all joint locks for kyu grades and added wrist locks to the prohibited kansetsu-waza for dan grades. It was also stated that the ratio of tachi-waza to ne-waza should be between 70% to 80% for kyu grades and 60% to 70% for dan grades.
In 1916, additional rulings were brought in to further limit kansetsu waza with the prohibition of ashi garami and neck locks, as well as do jime. These were further added to in 1925.
Prof. Jigoro Kano for a long time wished to see judo as an Olympic discipline. The first time judo was seen in the Olympic Games was in an informal demonstration hosted by Kano at the 1932 Games. However, Kano was ambivalent about judo’s potential inclusion as an Olympic sport:
I have been asked by people of various sections as to the wisdom and possibility of judo being introduced to other games and sports at the Olympic Games. My view on the matter, at present, is rather passive. If it is the desire of other member countries, I have no objection. But I do not feel inclined to take any initiative. For one thing, judo in reality is not a mere sport or game. I regard it as a principle of life, art, and science. In fact, it is a means for personal cultural attainment. Only one of the forms of judo training, so-called randori or free practice can be classed as a form of sport. Certainly, to some extent, the same may be said of boxing and fencing, but today they are practiced and conducted as sports. Then the Olympic Games are so strongly flavored with nationalism that it is possible to be influenced by it and to develop “Contest Judo”, a retrograde form as ju-jitsu was before the Kodokan was founded. Judo should be free as art and science from any external influences, political, national, racial, and financial, or any other organized interest. And all things connected with it should be directed to its ultimate object, the “Benefit of Humanity”. Human sacrifice is a matter of ancient history.
At the 57th general session of the International Olympic Committee, held in Rome on August 22, 1960, the IOC members formally decided to include Judo among the events to be contested at the Olympic Games. The proposal, which was placed before the session by the Japanese delegation, was welcomed by all participants. The few who opposed had nothing against Judo itself but against increasing the number of Olympic events as a whole. There were only two dissenting votes in the final poll. For the first time in history, a traditional Japanese sport has been included in the Olympic competition.
Kodokan 講道館 Judo柔道, :
Kano’s vision for judo was one of a martial way that could be practiced realistically. Randori (free practice) was a central part of judo pedagogy and shiai (competition) a crucial test of a judoka’s understanding of judo. Safety necessitated some basic innovations that shaped judo’s development. Atemi waza (striking techniques) were entirely limited to kata (prearranged forms) early in judo’s history. Kansetsu waza (joint manipulation techniques) were limited to techniques that focused on the elbow joint. Various throwing techniques that were judged to be too dangerous to practice safely at full force, such as all joint-locking throws from Jujutsu, were also prohibited in shiai. To maximise safety in nage waza (throwing techniques), judoka trained in ukemi (break falls) and practiced on tatami (rice straw mats).
Kansetsu and shime waza
The application of joint manipulation and strangulation/choking techniques is generally safe under controlled conditions typical of judo dōjō and in competition. It is usual for there to be age restrictions on the practice and application of these types of techniques, but the exact nature of these restrictions will vary from country to country and from organization to organization.
Kosen 高專 Judo柔道,:
is a variation of the Kodokan judo competitive ruleset that was developed and flourished at the kōtō senmon gakkō (高等専門学校) (kōsen (高專)) technical colleges in Japan in the first half of the twentieth century. Kosen judo’s rules allow for greater emphasis of ne-waza (寝技, ground techniques) than typically takes place in competitive judo and it is sometimes regarded as a distinct style of judo.
Currently the term “kosen judo” is frequently used to refer to the competition ruleset associated with it that allows for extended ne-waza. Such competition rules are still used in the Nanatei Jūdō / Shichitei Jūdō (七帝柔道, Seven Imperials Judo) competitions held annually between the seven former Imperial universities.
Rulesets, difference between Kosen and Kodokan Judo:
Unlike mainstream Kodokan competition rules, kosen rules allow hikikomi (引込, pulling-in), enabling competitors to transition to ne-waza by dragging their opponent down without using a recognised nage-waza technique (analogous to pulling-guard). It is also allowed to remain on the ground as much time as it is necessary, regardless of the contenders’ activity. The judoka can grab his opponent as he wants, including at the legs and trousers, and there is no restriction on defensive posture. Techniques like neck cranks and leglocks were legal (excluding ashi garami, which was still a forbidden technique or kinshi-waza), though only until 1925. Finally, winning can only be accomplished by ippon, being the only alternative a hikiwake or technical draw at the referee’s discretion.
The matches are contested on a mat 20×20 meters in total size. A starting zone 8×8 meters was marked on the mat as well as a danger zone which ended at 16×16 meters. If a judoka went out of the danger zone the match would be restarted. If they were actively engaged in newaza the referee would call sono-mama to freeze them into position, drag them to the middle of the competition area, and call yoshi to restart the match in the same situation. This device was common in judo in general and is still part of the official judo rules, addressed in article 18, but has since fallen into disuse, allowing modern judoka to escape newaza by going out of the competition zone.
At the Nanatei Judo league, universities face off in teams of 20 judoka of any weight class: 13 of ordinary contenders, a captain and a vice-captain, and five replacements in case of injuries or retirements. Every match is composed of a single, six-minute round, changed to an eight minute round when the contenders are captains or vice-captains. The league is hosted as a kachi-nuki shiai, meaning every winner stays on the mat to face the next member of the rival team. At the end of the event, victory is given to the team with the highest numbers of matches won or with the last man on the field.